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J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2001 Jan-Feb;12(1):17-22.

Correlates of sleep quality in persons with HIV disease.

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  • 1Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, City University of New York, USA.


This study used the Symptom Experience dimension of the revised UCSF Symptom Management Conceptual model to examine correlates of sleep quality in HIV-infected persons. According to this model, person, health/illness, and environment categories influence perception of a symptom. The average person in the sample (N = 58) reported being HIV-infected for 8.5 years and was 46 years old, not working, and a person of color. Depending on the level of data, either chi square or Pearson correlations were computed between the person, health/illness, and environment categories and the dependent variable, sleep quality, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Person variables significantly related to sleep quality were employment status, trait anxiety, and general well-being. Health/illness variables significantly related to sleep quality were length of time living with HIV disease and five health status measures (depressive symptoms, state anxiety, symptom severity, daytime sleepiness, and functional status). The environmental variables associated with sleep quality were sleeping alone, having a separate bedroom, and sleeping in a noisy room. Correlates of better sleep quality are positive general well-being, less anxious personality trait and emotional state, less daytime sleepiness, less depressive symptoms, and less symptom severity. Correlates of worse sleep quality are impaired functional status and longer duration of living with HIV disease.

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