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Shock. 2001 Jan;15(1):16-23.

Under-resuscitation of near-lethal uncontrolled hemorrhage: effects on mortality and end-organ function at 72 hours.

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  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109-0303, USA.


Laboratory studies of uncontrolled hemorrhage demonstrate that under resuscitation (UR) improves short-term survival, but at the expense of tissue perfusion. The long-term effects of UR have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival and the incidence of end-organ injury (EOI), 3 days following moderate and severe UR of uncontrolled hemorrhage. Thirty-four swine (14-24 kg) were assigned to 4 groups: Groups I, II, and III were hemorrhaged to a pulse pressure = 5 mmHg in the presence of a 4-mm aortic tear: Group I (control; n = 6) was not resuscitated; Group II (n = 11) was severely under resuscitated (MAP [mean arterial pressure] = 40 mmHg) for 75 min; Group III (n = 9) was moderately under resuscitated (MAP = 60 mmHg) for 75 min. After 75 min, the aortotomy was repaired, and animals were resuscitated to baseline physiologic parameters. Group IV (sham; n = 8) was instrumented, but not hemorrhaged. Seventy-two-hour mortality was 100%, 36%, 22%, and 0% for Groups I through IV (P = .001 Fisher's exact). Cardiac indices, serum bicarbonate, and systemic oxygen delivery were significantly lower in Group II as compared to Group III during the 75 min of UR (P < 0.05; repeated measures ANOVA). By 72 h, physiologic parameters in surviving animals had returned to baseline levels. Measures of kidney, liver, neurologic, and pulmonary function did not change from baseline. There was no histologic evidence of EOI. In this model, 75 min of UR did not result in EOI. There was a trend toward greater survival, and tissue perfusion was better preserved with moderate as compared to severe UR.

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