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Mamm Genome. 2001 Jan;12(1):32-7.

Estimation of DNA sequence diversity in bovine cytokine genes.

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  • 1USDA, ARS, US Meat Animal Research Center, Nebraska 68933-0166, USA. heaton@email.marc.usda.gov


DNA sequence variation provides the fundamental material for improving livestock through selection. In cattle, single nucleotide polymorphisms and small insertions/deletions (collectively referred to here as SNPs) have been identified in cytokine genes and scored in a reference population to determine linkage map positions. The aim of the present study was twofold: first, to estimate the SNP frequency in a reference population of beef cattle, and second, to determine cytokine haplotypes in a group of sires from commercial populations. Forty-five SNP markers in DNA segments from nine cytokine gene loci were analyzed in 26 reference parents. Comparison of all 52 haploid genomes at each PCR amplicon locus revealed an average of one SNP per 143 bp of sequence, whereas comparison of any two chromosomes identified heterozygous sites, on average, every 443 bp. The combination of these 45 SNP genotypes was sufficient to uniquely identify each of the 26 animals. The average number of haplotype alleles (4.4) per PCR amplicon (688 bp) and the percentage heterozygosity among founding parents (50%) were similar to those for microsatellite markers in the same population. For 49 sires from seven common breeds of beef cattle, SNP genotypes (1,225 total) were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) at three amplicon loci. All three of the amplicon haplotypes were correctly deduced for each sire without the use of parent or progeny genotypes. The latter allows a wide range of genetic studies in commercial populations of cattle where genotypic information from relatives may not be available.

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