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Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Feb 14;172(1-2):57-67.

The chum salmon insulin-like growth factor II promoter requires Sp1 for its activation by C/EBPbeta.

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  • 1Laboratory for Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


The chum salmon insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene is highly expressed in liver tissue. In this study we demonstrate that two transcription factors, Sp1 and C/EBPbeta, are involved in the enhanced expression of the salmon IGF-II gene. The presence of the fish homolog for C/EBPbeta in salmon liver RNA was confirmed by Northern blotting. The sIGF-II promoter was activated up to 20-fold by co-transfection with C/EBPbeta. The functional importance of four out of the five putative C/EBPbeta binding sites was demonstrated with mutational analysis in transient transfection assays. The transcription factor Sp1 binds to two sites within the salmon IGF-II promoter. Interestingly, mutation of the Sp1 binding sites decreases not only the basal IGF-II promoter activity but also the C/EBPbeta-induced transactivation. These results demonstrate that liver-enriched C/EBPbeta and ubiquitously expressed Sp1 each activate the sIGF-II promoter and that Sp1 is required for full transactivation of the sIGF-II gene by C/EBPbeta. This suggests that C/EBPbeta and Sp1 act in synergy.

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