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Annu Rev Med. 2001;52:15-27.

Pathophysiological role of cytokines in congestive heart failure.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Poria Hospital, Lower Galilee 15208, Israel.


Heart failure is a complex neurohumoral and inflammatory syndrome. Recent studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor) are involved in cardiac depression and in the complex syndrome of heart failure. Understanding the involvement of these cytokines may enable us to reverse cardiac depression and heart failure by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cytokines to block the downhill progression of heart failure.

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