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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Dec;68(6):1027-32.

Alliance predicts patients' outcome beyond in-treatment change in symptoms.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Center for Psychotherapy Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-3309,USA.


The authors examined the relations among therapeutic alliance, outcome, and early-in-treatment symptomatic improvement in a group of 86 patients with generalized anxiety disorders, chronic depression, or avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who received supportive-expressive dynamic psychotherapy. Although alliance at Sessions 5 and 10, but not at Session 2, was associated with prior change in depression, alliance at all sessions significantly predicted subsequent change in depression when prior change in depression was partialed out. The results are discussed in terms of the causal role of the alliance in therapeutic outcome.

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