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J Virol. 2001 Jan;75(2):612-21.

Role of CD28/CD80-86 and CD40/CD154 costimulatory interactions in host defense to primary herpes simplex virus infection.

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  • 1Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.


Dependence of the primary antiviral immune response on costimulatory interactions between CD28/CD80-86 and between CD40/CD154 (CD40 ligand) has been correlated with the extent of viral replication in two models of systemic infection, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. To determine the role of these costimulatory interactions in the context of an acute cytolytic, but locally replicating viral infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was assessed in mice that had the CD28/CD80-86 or CD40/CD154 interactions disrupted either genetically or with blocking reagents (CTLA4Ig and MR1, respectively). CTLA4Ig treatment greatly reduced paralysis-free survival during primary acute HSV infection. This reflected an almost total ablation of the anti-HSV CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses due to anergy and reduced cell numbers, respectively. Disruption of CD40/CD154 interactions impaired survival, but the effect was less severe than that observed in CTLA4Ig-treated mice, with reductions observed in the CD4(+) T-cell but not CD8(+) T-cell responses. These two costimulatory pathways functioned in part independently, since disruption of both further impaired survival. The dependence on these costimulatory interactions for the control of primary HSV infection may represent a more widespread paradigm for nonsystemic viruses, which have restricted sites of replication and which employ immunoevasive measures.

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