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J Hand Surg Am. 2000 Nov;25(6):1007-37.

Congenital anomalies: a 25-year overview.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, USA.


Expansion of the discipline of hand surgery and heightened interest in congenital problems have resulted in major advances in the treatment of congenital hand anomalies over the past 25 years. Increased experience with congenital anomalies of the hand has expanded the hand surgeon's knowledge of patterns and relationships between different anomalies resulting in new methods of classification and more logical approaches to treatment. The principles of treatment of the more common anomalies, such as syndactyly, established by prior generations of hand surgeons have been refined in details of technique. New technologies, such as distraction lengthening and free vascularized transfers, have allowed the surgeon to treat new problems and old problems in new ways. In spite of our successes, much remains to challenge hand surgeons in this new millennium, especially in the construction of joints and the expanding field of fetal surgery.

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