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J Child Neurol. 2000 Nov;15(11):763-5.

A 15-year follow-up of a boy with pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-dependent seizures with autism, breath holding, and severe mental retardation.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA.


Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (2q31) dependency is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that causes a severe seizure disorder of prenatal or neonatal onset. The abnormality appears to inhibit the binding of vitamin B6 to the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase-1, which is needed for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Most patients with pyridoxine-dependent seizures require lifelong treatment with pyridoxine. The full range of associated symptomatology is unknown since fewer than 100 cases have been reported. A majority of cases are mentally retarded. We report a 15-year-old boy with pyridoxine-dependent seizures, nonpyridoxine-dependent seizures, severe mental retardation, autistic disorder, aerophagia, breath holding, and self-injury. This complex outcome should alert clinicians to the wide range of neuropsychiatric outcomes associated with this disorder.

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