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Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Dec;31(6):1467-75. Epub 2000 Nov 29.

Disorders of glucose metabolism in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


New-onset diabetes mellitus, clinically similar to type 2 diabetes, will affect a small proportion (1%-6%) of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are treated with HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). However, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance will develop during PI treatment in a considerable proportion of patients. Dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and loss of peripheral fat frequently coexist with insulin resistance, but it is not clear whether all of these result from a common pathogenic mechanism. Recent data suggest that insulin resistance may also be associated with HIV infection in patients not receiving PI therapy. The long-term consequences of insulin resistance in this population are not known. The effect of switching to other antiretroviral therapies has not been fully determined. Treatment of established diabetes mellitus should generally follow existing guidelines. There is no clinically useful screening test that will determine the existence and degree of insulin resistance in individual patients. It is therefore reasonable to recommend general measures to increase insulin sensitivity in all patients infected with HIV, such as weight reduction for obese persons and regular aerobic exercise.

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