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J Mol Biol. 2000 Dec 1;304(3):471-81.

Inhibition of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by the mycarose moiety of the antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin and tylosin.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, DK-1307, Denmark.

Abstract

Many antibiotics, including the macrolides, inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes. Only some of the macrolides affect the peptidyl transferase reaction. The 16-member ring macrolide antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin inhibit peptidyl transferase. All these have a disaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring with a mycarose moiety. We have investigated the functional role of this mycarose moiety. The 14-member ring macrolide erythromycin and the 16-member ring macrolides desmycosin and chalcomycin do not inhibit the peptidyl transferase reaction. These drugs have a monosaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring. The presence of mycarose was correlated with inhibition of peptidyl transferase, footprints on 23 S rRNA and whether the macrolide can compete with binding of hygromycin A to the ribosome. The binding sites of the macrolides to Escherichia coli ribosomes were investigated by chemical probing of domains II and V of 23 S rRNA. The common binding site is around position A2058, while effects on U2506 depend on the presence of the mycarose sugar. Also, protection at position A752 indicates that a mycinose moiety at position 14 in 16-member ring macrolides interact with hairpin 35 in domain II. Competitive footprinting of ribosomal binding of hygromycin A and macrolides showed that tylosin and spiramycin reduce the hygromycin A protections of nucleotides in 23 S rRNA and that carbomycin abolishes its binding. In contrast, the macrolides that do not inhibit the peptidyl transferase reaction bind to the ribosomes concurrently with hygromycin A. Data are presented to argue that a disaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring of macrolides is essential for inhibition of peptide bond formation and that the mycarose moiety is placed near the conserved U2506 in the central loop region of domain V 23 S rRNA.

Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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