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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Oct;68(4):375-83.

Combined phenotypic assessment of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase with the "Cooperstown cocktail".

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  • 1Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Department of Medicine, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, NY, USA.



Simultaneous administration of several probes enhances the utility of phenotyping, but poor specificity, side effects, and use of drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration limit the usefulness of prior phenotyping cocktails.


To evaluate potential drug-drug interactions associated with use of a cocktail of caffeine, omeprazole, dextromethorphan, and midazolam for simultaneous phenotyping of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase.


Twelve subjects received caffeine + dextromethorphan, omeprazole, and midazolam (each alone), and a cocktail of caffeine + dextromethorphan + omeprazole + midazolam. Blood samples were collected at 120 minutes for omeprazole and 5/-hydroxyomeprazole, and at 0, 5, 30, 60, 120, 240, 300, and 360 minutes for midazolam. Twelve-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of dextromethorphan, caffeine, and metabolites.


The median CYP1A2 metabolic ratio after administration of caffeine + dextromethorphan was not significantly different from that obtained with the cocktail (P = .84). Likewise, the median N-acetyltransferase-2, xanthine oxidase, and CYP2D6 metabolic ratios were not significantly different after cocktail administration (P = .977 for each N-acetyltransferase-2; P = .795 for xanthine oxidase; P = .75 for CYP2D6). The median CYP2C19 metabolic ratio after cocktail administration was not significantly different from that obtained after omeprazole administered alone (P = 1.000). Also, midazolam plasma clearance was not significantly different after cocktail administration compared with that after administration of midazolam alone (P = .708). The only side effect was sedation, which was associated with intravenous midazolam and occurred to a similar extent after both individual and cocktail phenotyping.


These results indicate no pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions that would limit the utility of this phenotyping cocktail for simultaneous measurement of the activity of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes.

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