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Genet Epidemiol. 2000;19 Suppl 1:S36-42.

Implementing a unified approach to family-based tests of association.

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  • 1Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. laird@biostat.harvard.edu

Abstract

We describe a broad class of family-based association tests that are adjusted for admixture; use either dichotomous or measured phenotypes; accommodate phenotype-unknown subjects; use nuclear families, sibships or a combination of the two, permit multiple nuclear families from a single pedigree; incorporate di- or multi-allelic marker data; allow additive, dominant or recessive models; and permit adjustment for covariates and gene-by-environment interactions. The test statistic is basically the covariance between a user-specified function of the genotype and a user-specified function of the trait. The distribution of the statistic is computed using the appropriate conditional distribution of offspring genotypes that adjusts for admixture.

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