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Ophthalmology. 2000 Nov;107(11):2034-8;discussion 2039.

Ketorolac versus prednisolone versus combination therapy in the treatment of acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.

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  • 1Ophthalmic Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



To evaluate the efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% ophthalmic solution, prednisolone acetate 1.0% ophthalmic solution, and ketorolac and prednisolone combination therapy in the treatment of acute, visually significant, cystoid macular edema (CME) occurring after cataract extraction surgery.


Randomized, double-masked, prospective trial.


Twenty-eight patients who had undergone cataract extraction and in whom clinical CME developed within 21 to 90 days after cataract surgery.


Patients were randomized to topical therapy with ketorolac (group K), prednisolone (group P), or ketorolac and prednisolone combination therapy (group C) four times daily. Treatment was continued until CME resolved or for 3 months, whichever occurred first. Treatment was then tapered over 3 weeks. Examinations were monthly and included Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, Amsler grid, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus examination, and fluorescein angiography.


Twenty-six of 28 patients completed the study. Patients were enrolled an average of 48 days after surgery. The average improvements in Snellen visual acuity were as follows: 1.6 lines in group K, 1.1 lines in group P, and 3.8 lines in group C. This reached statistical significance for all visits when group C was compared with group P, and for visits 4 and 5 when group C was compared with group K. Group C reached a mean change of two lines or more by visit 2; at no time did either group K or P reach a mean two-line improvement. At no time was a significant difference detected between group K and P with regard to visual acuity or change from baseline. A two-line or more improvement in Snellen acuity was achieved in 16 of 26 patients (61%). Analysis by group revealed four of eight patients (50%) in group P, six of nine patients (67%) in group K, and eight of nine patients (89%) in group C who had achieved a two-line or more improvement. In patients who did improve two lines or more, improvement occurred an average of 2.75 months after initiating therapy in group P, 1.43 months in group K, and 1.33 months in group C. Improvements in contrast sensitivity and leakage on fluorescein angiography tended to mirror improvements in Snellen acuity.


Treatment of acute, visually significant pseudophakic CME with ketorolac and prednisolone combination therapy appears to offer benefits over monotherapy with either agent alone. Patients were more likely to experience recovery of two lines or more of visual acuity. Patients treated with combination therapy or ketorolac monotherapy responded more quickly than did patients treated with prednisolone alone.

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