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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 24;97(22):12222-6.

Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction activates the hexosamine pathway and induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by increasing Sp1 glycosylation.

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  • 1Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Diabetes Research Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Abstract

The hexosamine pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We determined first that hyperglycemia induced a decrease in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells via increased production of mitochondrial superoxide and a concomitant 2.4-fold increase in hexosamine pathway activity. Both decreased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased hexosamine pathway activity were prevented completely by an inhibitor of electron transport complex II (thenoyltrifluoroacetone), an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), a superoxide dismutase mimetic [manganese (III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin], overexpression of either uncoupling protein 1 or manganese superoxide dismutase, and azaserine, an inhibitor of the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine pathway (glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase). Immunoprecipitation of Sp1 followed by Western blotting with antibodies to O-linked GlcNAc, phosphoserine, and phosphothreonine showed that hyperglycemia increased GlcNAc by 1.7-fold, decreased phosphoserine by 80%, and decreased phosphothreonine by 70%. The same inhibitors prevented all these changes. Hyperglycemia increased expression from a transforming growth factor-beta(1) promoter luciferase reporter by 2-fold and increased expression from a (-740 to +44) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter luciferase reporter gene by nearly 3-fold. Inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide production or the glucosamine pathway prevented all these changes. Hyperglycemia increased expression from an 85-bp truncated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter luciferase reporter containing two Sp1 sites in a similar fashion (3.8-fold). In contrast, hyperglycemia had no effect when the two Sp1 sites were mutated. Thus, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction increases hexosamine synthesis and O-glycosylation of Sp1, which activates expression of genes that contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

PMID:
11050244
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC17322
Free PMC Article
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