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Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Nov;20(22):8480-8.

Ras-dependent regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation is mediated by the Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Ral pathway.

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  • 1Department of Physiological Chemistry and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.


The transcription factor c-Jun is critically involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation as well as cellular transformation induced by oncogenic Ras. The signal transduction pathways that couple Ras activation to c-Jun phosphorylation are still partially elusive. Here we show that an activated version of the Ras effector Rlf, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of the small GTPase Ral, can induce the phosphorylation of serines 63 and 73 of c-Jun. In addition, we show that growth factor-induced, Ras-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is abolished by inhibitory mutants of the RalGEF-Ral pathway. These results suggest that the RalGEF-Ral pathway plays a major role in Ras-dependent c-Jun phosphorylation. Ral-dependent regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation includes JNK, a still elusive JNKK, and possibly Src.

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