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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000 Oct;79(4):602-16.

Intergroup emotions: explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106-9660, USA. mackie@psych.ucsb.edu


Three studies tested the idea that when social identity is salient, group-based appraisals elicit specific emotions and action tendencies toward out-groups. Participants' group memberships were made salient and the collective support apparently enjoyed by the in-group was measured or manipulated. The authors then measured anger and fear (Studies 1 and 2) and anger and contempt (Study 3), as well as the desire to move against or away from the out-group. Intergroup anger was distinct from intergroup fear, and the inclination to act against the out-group was distinct from the tendency to move away from it. Participants who perceived the in-group as strong were more likely to experience anger toward the out-group and to desire to take action against it. The effects of perceived in-group strength on offensive action tendencies were mediated by anger.

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