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Vet Microbiol. 2000 Nov 15;77(1-2):29-41.

Epidemiology of classical swine fever in Germany in the 1990s.

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  • 1Institute of Virology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Buenteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany.


In Germany, 424 outbreaks of CSF in domestic pigs and a great number of cases in wild boar were recorded between 1990 and 1998. Most of the federal states ('Bundesländer') were affected. Epidemiological data from field investigations combined with genetic typing allowed to distinguish seven unrelated epidemics and a number of sporadic outbreaks in domestic pigs. Detailed epidemiological data was available for 327 outbreaks. It was found that 28% of these were primary outbreaks. Most of them were due to indirect or direct contact to wild boar infected with CSF virus or swill feeding. Infected wild boar remain the main risk for domestic pigs. The most frequent sources of infection in secondary or follow up outbreaks were the trade with infected pigs, neighbourhood contacts to infected farms and other contacts via contaminated persons and vehicles, respectively. An increased risk of virus transmission from infected herds to neighbourhood farms was observed up to a radius of approximately 500m. More than two thirds of the infected herds were discovered due to clinical signs. About 20% were identified by epidemiological tracing on and back. These were scrutinised because contacts to infected herds were evident. In conclusion, tracing of contact herds and clinical examination combined with carefully targeted virological testing of suspicious animals is likely to be the most important measure to immediately uncover secondary outbreaks. Obligatory serological screening in the surveillance and the restriction zones do not seem to be efficient measures to detect follow-up outbreaks.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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