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J Fam Psychol. 2000 Sep;14(3):401-19.

Parental warmth, control, and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: a longitudinal study.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.


A sample of children, initially 12 years old, in the People's Republic of China participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Data on parental warmth, control, and indulgence were collected from children's self-reports. Information concerning social, academic, and psychological adjustment was obtained from multiple sources. The results indicated that parenting styles might be a function of child gender and change with age. Regression analyses revealed that parenting styles of fathers and mothers predicted different outcomes. Whereas maternal warmth had significant contributions to the prediction of emotional adjustment, paternal warmth significantly predicted later social and school achievement. It was also found that paternal, but not maternal, indulgence significantly predicted children's adjustment difficulties. The contributions of the parenting variables might be moderated by the child's initial conditions.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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