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J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000 Jul-Aug;9(6):625-32.

A conceptual model for the recruitment of diverse women into research studies.

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  • 1The National Center of Excellence in Women's Health, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA.


Researchers' understanding of recruitment and retention of study subjects is in its infancy. To address the dearth of information on the underrepresentation of diverse populations of women in research studies relating to health issues, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) National Center of Excellence in Women's Health completed a comprehensive examination of issues related to recruitment. By synthesizing data from literature reviews, focus groups, surveys, one-on-one interviews, and direct experience recruiting diverse populations of women for research, a conceptual model was developed. This model outlines the interplay of three factors found to be relevant to the recruitment of diverse populations of women into research studies: awareness, acceptance, and access. Practical examples of cost-effective recruitment strategies to be considered for implementation to increase the presence of awareness, acceptability, and access are included in this report.

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