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Mutat Res. 2000 Aug 30;460(3-4):165-81.

Structure and function in the uracil-DNA glycosylase superfamily.

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  • 1Section of Structural Biology and CRC DNA Repair Enzyme Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Road, SW3 6JB, London, UK. laurence@icr.ac.uk

Abstract

Deamination of cytosine to uracil is one of the major pro-mutagenic events in DNA, causing G:C-->A:T transition mutations if not repaired before replication. Repair of uracil-DNA is achieved in a base-excision pathway initiated by a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) enzyme of which four families have so far been identified. Family-1 enzymes are active against uracil in ssDNA and dsDNA, and recognise uracil explicitly in an extrahelical conformation via a combination of protein and bound-water interactions. Extrahelical recognition requires an efficient process of substrate location by 'base-sampling' probably by hopping or gliding along the DNA. Family-2 enzymes are mismatch specific and explicitly recognise the widowed guanine on the complementary strand rather than the extrahelical scissile pyrimidine. This allows a broader specificity so that some Family-2 enzymes can excise uracil and 3, N(4)-ethenocytosine from mismatches with guanine. Although structures are not yet available for Family-3 (SMUG) and Family-4 enzymes, sequence analysis suggests similar overall folds, and identifies common active site motifs but with a surprising lack of conservation of catalytic residues between members of the super-family.

PMID:
10946227
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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