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PPARgamma: observations in the hematopoietic system.

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  • 1Department of Cancer Biology/Pathology, Children's Memorial Institute for Education and Research (CMIER), Chicago, IL 60614, USA.


Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was originally cloned from a human bone marrow library. What role does this ligand activated transcription factor play in hematopoiesis and the immune system? We note that: a) PPARgamma has potential to interact/interfere or synergize with retinoid biology, b) fatty acids and a prostaglandin have been identified as ligands, and c) lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils use fatty acids as a major source of energy production, d) PPARgamma has been shown to oppose TNFalpha and down regulate cytokine production in monocytes. Therefore, we undertook a review of the literature and an expression survey of PPARgamma in a number of major organs and cells involved in the hematopoietic system, for the purpose of building a database towards understanding the role and function of PPARgamma gene regulation in the developing blood and immune systems. PPARgamma is expressed before mesodermal induction in tissue in and around Speymann's organizer in the xenopus blastocyst, in erythroid precursors of blood islands and in the circulation of the day 10.0 murine embryo, in human 19 week fetal liver, in some but not all murine and human bone marrow erythroid, myeloid, and monocytoid progenitors, bone marrow stromal cells and adipocytes, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, some T, and B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and other monocytic derivatives. It can be found in the cells of Peyer's patches, lymphoid follicles, spleen, and thymus. It is not clear if it is ever or transiently expressed in megakaryocytes, mast cells, or neutrophils. Based on the above data and a review of the literature, PPARgamma seems to play a role during the elicitation of immune responses. We propose PPARgamma may be involved in changes in energy states required during activation and development of many cell types involved, and has additional immunologically relevant effects in erythroid, myeloid, monocytic, T and B lymphocytic, stromal, and endothelial cell function.

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