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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000 Jul;30(4):729-55, v.

Pain assessment and general approach to management.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Canada.


To manage pain successfully, assessment of the presence and degree of pain is essential. This article describes the various signs and behaviors that may be presumed to be associated with pain of varying degrees. Conditions that are associated with pain and situations that influence the severity of pain are also discussed. The general approach to management of these situations is outlined, with an introduction to the various articles in this issue dealing with specific mechanisms and modalities involved in the treatment of pain.

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