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J Immunol. 2000 Aug 15;165(4):2028-39.

Differentiation of monocytes to macrophages switches the Mycobacterium tuberculosis effect on HIV-1 replication from stimulation to inhibition: modulation of interferon response and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta expression.

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  • 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Bellevue Chest Service, Department of Pathology, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.


HIV-1 replication is inhibited in uninflamed lung macrophages and is stimulated during tuberculosis. Attempts to recapitulate activation of HIV-1 replication in primary monocytes and macrophages ex vivo and in the untreated and PMA-treated THP-1 cell line model in vitro have produced opposite results depending on the state of differentiation of the cells. After infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, monocytes enhanced HIV-1 replication and produced a stimulatory 37-kDa CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) transcription factor, whereas macrophages suppressed HIV-1 replication and produced an inhibitory 16-kDa C/EBPbeta transcription factor. IFN-beta induced inhibitory 16-kDa C/EBPbeta in macrophages, but had no effect on C/EBPbeta expression in monocytes. Macrophages, but not monocytes, were able to activate IFN-stimulated gene factor-3 (ISGF-3), a transcription factor composed of STAT-1, STAT-2, and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-9, after infection with M. tuberculosis or stimulation with type I IFN. Macrophages expressed IRF-9 DNA-binding activity, but monocytes did not, and addition of the IRF-9 component reconstituted ISGF-3 in extracts of IFN-treated monocytes. Modulation of IFN responsiveness upon differentiation occurred at least in part through a post-transcriptionally regulated increase in IRF-9 expression. Both monocytes and macrophages maintained IFN responsiveness, activating STAT-1 homodimer formation and transcription of the STAT-1 gene after IFN stimulation. In addition, both monocytes and macrophages were able to activate NF-kappaB upon infection with M. tuberculosis. These results show that induction of ISGF-3, expression of the inhibitory 16-kDa C/EBPbeta, and suppression of HIV-1 replication via a transcriptional mechanism are macrophage-specific responses to infection with M. tuberculosis.

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