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Int J Epidemiol. 2000 Aug;29(4):722-9.

An introduction to instrumental variables for epidemiologists.

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  • 1Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772, USA.


Instrumental-variable (IV) methods were invented over 70 years ago, but remain uncommon in epidemiology. Over the past decade or so, non-parametric versions of IV methods have appeared that connect IV methods to causal and measurement-error models important in epidemiological applications. This paper provides an introduction to those developments, illustrated by an application of IV methods to non-parametric adjustment for non-compliance in randomized trials.

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