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Transplantation. 2000 Jul 15;70(1):112-6.

Prevalence and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 1,963 thoracic organ transplant recipients: a multicenter retrospective study. Italian Study Group of Fungal Infections in Thoracic Organ Transplant Recipients.

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  • 1Istituto di Clinica delle Malattie Infettive, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo-Universit√† di Pavia, Italy.



Fungal infections (FI) after solid organ transplantation (Tx) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus and Candida account for more than 80% of FI.


One thousand nine hundred and sixty-three patients undergoing thoracic organ Tx [1,852 heart and 111 lung (35 heart-lung Tx, 30 double-lung Tx, 46 single-lung Tx)] in 12 Italian Centers between November 1985 and January 1997 were included in the study.


Fifty-one patients (41 heart Tx - 2.2%; 9 heart-lung Tx - 25.7%; 1 single-lung Tx - 2.2%) developed 53 invasive FI at a median of 58 days (range 6-2479) after Tx. Aspergillosis was the most frequent FI in our series accounting for 64.1% (34/53) of all FI [A fumigatus, n=29 (85.3%); A nidulans, n=2 (5.9%); A niger, n=2 (5.9%); A terreus, n=1 (2.9%)]; 30 (88.2%) patients developed invasive lung aspergillosis, 2 (5.9%) a tracheobronchitis, 1 (2.9%) a skin infection, and 1 (2.9%) a sternal wound infection. Twelve patients (22.6%) developed candidiasis [C albicans, n=8 (66.6%); C krusei, n=1 (8.3%); C glabrata, n=1 (8.3%); C parapsilosis, n=1 (8.3%); C sake, n=1 (8.3%)]. There were seven episodes (58.3%) of candidemia, two (16.7%) esophagitis, two (16.7%) gastritis, and one (8.3%) tracheobronchitis. Mortality was 29.4% for patients developing aspergillosis and 33.3% for those experiencing candidiasis. Furthermore, four patients developed the following: one C neoformans meningitis, one Sporothrix cyanescens pneumonia, one Rhizopus spp. tracheobronchitis, and one Trichosporon beigelii disseminated infection. Three additional patients were diagnosed affected by deep mould infection by histology alone.


Deep-seated FI were relatively rare in our series, although their mortality rate is still very high.

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