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Kidney Int. 2000 Aug;58(2):783-9.

Impact of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphism on IgA nephropathy.

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  • 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. khshu@vghtc.vghtc.gov.tw

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is evident that cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis as well as disease progression in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The level of cytokine production is influenced by different genotypes that reflect gene polymorphism of the pertinent cytokine. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene polymorphism have been found to affect disease susceptibility and activity in several inflammatory diseases. However, the impact of these polymorphisms in IgAN patients has not previously been thoroughly studied.

METHODS:

We investigated 111 cases of biopsy-proven IgAN and 100 healthy, normal controls for their IL-1ra and TNF-alpha gene polymorphism. IL-1ra gene polymorphism was characterized as a variable number of tandem repeats of a 86 bp sequence within intron 2. Five alleles were identified and were designated as IL1RN*1, IL1RN*2, IL1RN*3, IL1RN*4, and IL1RN*5, corresponding to 4, 2, 5, 3, 6 repeats, respectively. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-alpha gene was also studied. This polymorphism involved a guanidine to adenosine transition at position -308 and was designated as TNF1 (-308G) and TNF2 (-308A).

RESULTS:

There were 54 male and 57 female patients with a mean age of 30.3 +/- 12.5 years and a disease duration of 66. 8 +/- 47.2 months. The mean duration of the follow-up period was 47. 3 +/- 32.6 months. In the patient group, the allele frequencies of IL1RN*1, IL1RN*2, IL1RN*3, IL1RN*4, and IL1RN*5 were 89.6%, 9.9%, 0%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively, whereas the corresponding carriage rates were 100%, 19.8%, 0%, 0.9%, and 0%, respectively. An excessive carriage of IL2RN*2 was found in the patients when compared with normal controls (allele frequency, 9.9 vs. 2.5%, P < 0.0001). The allele frequencies of TNF1 and TNF2 were 94.1 and 5.9%, respectively, and the carriage rates were 99.1 and 10.8%, respectively, in the patients, which was not significantly different from those of normal controls. When the patients were stratified into mild and severe groups according to their initial presentation, none of the studied alleles correlated with the severity. However, patients with gross hematuria were associated with a higher carriage rate of TNF2 when compared with patients without gross hematuria (allele frequency, 15. 4 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.0552; carriage rate, 30.8% vs. 8.2%, P = 0.0272). Renal survival analysis revealed that the TNF2 carrier had a renal survival comparable with TNF2 (-) patients. However, the carriage of the IL1RN*2 allele was associated with a significantly poorer long-term outcome with a median survival time of 72 months, as compared with those without IL1RN*2 (134 months, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION:

IL-1ra and TNF-alpha gene polymorphism may affect disease susceptibility as well as disease activity and long-term outcome in human IgAN. Treatment with an IL-1ra or IL-1 blocking agent may be relevant in those carrying the IL1RN*2 allele.

PMID:
10916103
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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