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Psychiatry Res. 2000 Jul 17;94(3):221-7.

Evaluation of expressed emotion (EE) status in mood disorders in japan: inter-rater reliability and characteristics of EE.

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  • 1Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, 700-8558, Okayama, Japan.


The reliability of expressed emotion (EE) ratings by the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and characteristics of EE were evaluated in families of patients with mood disorders in Japan. The subjects were 27 patients with mood disorders and 31 members of their families. The CFI was carried out with the family members. EE was rated by two raters independently, and the inter-rater reliability was evaluated according to Spearman's correlation coefficient by ranks and the kappa-value. The distribution of subscales of EE in these subjects was compared with that in families of patients with schizophrenia in Japan and families of patients with mood disorders abroad. Concerning critical comments (CC), hostility (H), and emotional over-involvement (EOI), which are important for EE rating, Spearman's correlation coefficient and the kappa-values were 0.4-0.8, and the reliability of EE ratings in mood disorders was not high. The proportion of positive agreement was particularly low in H and EOI. CCs were fewer in families of Japanese patients with mood disorders than in those with schizophrenia or families of American or European patients with mood disorders. Re-evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of EE ratings in mood disorders is needed. Expressed emotion was more suppressed in families of patients with mood disorders than in those of patients with schizophrenia. Expressed emotion was also more reserved in the Japanese subjects than in their Western counterparts.

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