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J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Jun;107(6):3518-29.

Recognizing transient low-frequency whale sounds by spectrogram correlation.

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  • 1Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University, Newport 97365, USA.


A method is described for the automatic recognition of transient animal sounds. Automatic recognition can be used in wild animal research, including studies of behavior, population, and impact of anthropogenic noise. The method described here, spectrogram correlation, is well-suited to recognition of animal sounds consisting of tones and frequency sweeps. For a sound type of interest, a two-dimensional synthetic kernel is constructed and cross-correlated with a spectrogram of a recording, producing a recognition function--the likelihood at each point in time that the sound type was present. A threshold is applied to this function to obtain discrete detection events, instants at which the sound type of interest was likely to be present. An extension of this method handles the temporal variation commonly present in animal sounds. Spectrogram correlation was compared to three other methods that have been used for automatic call recognition: matched filters, neural networks, and hidden Markov models. The test data set consisted of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) end notes from songs recorded in Alaska in 1986 and 1988. The method had a success rate of about 97.5% on this problem, and the comparison indicated that it could be especially useful for detecting a call type when relatively few (5-200) instances of the call type are known.

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