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Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000 Jun 15;378(2):377-83.

Alternative splice variant of gamma-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alters activation by calmodulin.

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  • 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.


Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous, multifunctional enzyme family involved in the regulation of a variety of Ca(2+)-signaling pathways. These family members are expressed from four highly homologous genes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) with similar catalytic properties. Additional isoforms of each gene, created by alternative splicing of variable regions I-XI, are differentially expressed in various cell types. gammaB, gammaC, gammaD, gammaE, gammaF, gammaGs, and gammaH CaMKII isoforms are expressed in the biliary epithelium; however, little is known about their roles in these cells. We began our studies into the function of these variable regions by examining the effects of variable region I on kinase activation and calmodulin binding. Activities and calmodulin binding properties of gammaB and gammaGs, which differ only by the exclusion or inclusion of this region, were compared. The K(0.5) for calmodulin was 2.5-fold lower for gammaGs than gammaB. In contrast, gammaB bound calmodulin more tightly in a calmodulin overlay assay. Mutation of variable regions I's charged residue, gammaGs-R318E, resulted in an enzyme with intermediate activation properties but a calmodulin affinity similar to gammaB. Thus, variable region I appears to modulate calmodulin sensitivity, in part, through charge-charge interactions. This altered threshold of activation may modulate cellular responses to gradients of Ca(2+)/calmodulin in the biliary tract.

Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

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