Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Biochem J. 2000 Jun 15;348 Pt 3:621-32.

Characterization of beta-galactosidase mutations Asp332-->Asn and Arg148-->Ser, and a polymorphism, Ser532-->Gly, in a case of GM1 gangliosidosis.

Author information

  • 1Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8.


We have identified and characterized three missense mutations in a patient with type 1 G(M1) gangliosidosis, namely a substitution of G for A at nucleotide position 1044 (G1044-->A; in exon 10) on one allele, which converts Asp(332) into asparagine, and both a mutation (C492-->A in exon 4, leading to the amino acid change of Arg(148)-->Ser) and a polymorphism (A1644-->G in exon 15, leading to a change of Ser(532)-->Gly) on the other allele. This patient had less than 1% residual beta-galactosidase activity and minimally detectable levels of immunoreactive beta-galactosidase protein in fibroblasts. To account for the above findings, a series of expression and immunolocalization studies were undertaken to assess the impact of each mutation. Transient overexpression in COS-1 cells of cDNAs encoding Asp(332)Asn, Arg(148)Ser and Ser(532)Gly mutant beta-galactosidases produced abundant amounts of precursor beta-galactosidase, with activities of 0, 84 and 81% compared with the cDNA clone for wild-type beta-galactosidase (GP8). Since the level of vector-driven expression is much less in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells than in COS-1 cells, and we knew that exogenous beta-galactosidase undergoes lysosomal processing when expressed in these cells, transient expression studies were performed of Arg(148)Ser and Ser(532)Gly, which yielded active forms of the enzyme. In this case, the Arg(148)Ser and Ser(532)Gly products gave rise to 11% and 86% of the control activity respectively. These results were not unexpected, since the Arg(148)Ser mutation introduced a major conformational change into the protein, and we anticipated that it would be degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas the polymorphism was expected to produce near-normal activity. To examine the effect of the Asp(332)Asn mutation on the catalytic activity, we isolated CHO clones permanently transfected with the Asp(332)Asn and Asp(332)Glu constructs, purified the enzymes by substrate-analogue-affinity chromatography, and determined their kinetic parameters. The V(max) values of both mutant recombinant enzymes were markedly reduced (less than 0.9% of the control), and the K(m) values were unchanged compared with the corresponding wild-type enzyme isolated at the same time. Both the Arg(148)Ser beta-galactosidase in CHO cells and Asp(332)Asn beta-galactosidases (in COS-1 and CHO cells) produced abundant immunoreaction in the perinuclear area, consistent with localization in the ER. A low amount was detected in lysosomes. Incubation of patient fibroblasts in the presence of leupeptin, which reduces the rate of degradation of lysosomal beta-galactosidase by thiol proteases, had no effect on residual enzyme activity, and immunostaining was again detected largely in the perinuclear area (localized to the ER) with much lower amounts in the lysosomes. In summary, the Arg(148)Ser mutation has no effect on catalytic activity, whereas the Asp(332)Asn mutation seriously reduces catalytic activity, suggesting that Asp(332) might play a role in the active site. Immunofluorescence studies indicate the expressed mutant proteins with Arg(148)Ser and Asp(332)Asn mutations are held up in the ER, where they are probably degraded, resulting in only minimum amounts of the enzyme becoming localized in the lysosomes. These results are completely consistent with findings in the cultured fibroblasts. Our results imply that most of the missense mutations described in G(M1) gangliosidosis to date have little effect on catalytic activity, but do affect protein conformation such that the resulting protein cannot be transported out of the ER and fails to arrive in the lysosome. This accounts for the minimal amounts of enzyme protein and activity seen in most G(M1) gangliosidosis patient fibroblasts.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk