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J Infect Dis. 2000 Jun;181(6):2041-4. Epub 2000 May 25.

In vitro reactivation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 from latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells after bacterial stimulation.

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  • 1Dept. of Pediatrics, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan.


Microbial coinfections have been associated with transient bursts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia in patients. In this study, we have investigated whether microbial coinfections can induce replication of HIV-1 in latently infected CD4(+) T cells derived from HIV-infected patients who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and in whom plasma viremia is undetectable by sensitive assays. We demonstrate that supernatants from macrophages exposed to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide can induce in vitro activation of HIV-1 from latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells obtained from HIV-infected individuals. Depletion of proinflammatory cytokines from the supernatant markedly reduced-whereas depletion of ss chemokines increased--the ability of the supernatant to induce replication of HIV-1. Our results suggest that coinfection with microbial pathogens such as bacteria may induce viral replication in the latent viral reservoirs in vivo.

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