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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Feb;62(2 Suppl):88-99.

The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: summary findings in nine governorates.

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  • 1Schistosomiasis Research Project, The Egyptian Organization for Biological and Vaccine Production, Agouza.

Abstract

Health questionnaires and parasitologic examinations of urine and stool were evaluated from a stratified random sample of 89,180 individuals from 17,172 households in 251 rural communities in 9 governorates of Egypt to investigate the prevalence of, risk factors for, and changing pattern of infection with Schistosoma sp. in Egypt. A subset, every fifth household, or 18,600 subjects, had physical and ultrasound examinations to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for morbidity. Prevalence of S. haematobium in 4 governorates in Upper Egypt in which it is endemic ranged from 4.8% to 13.7% and averaged 7.8%. The geometric mean egg count (GMEC) ranged from 7.0 to 10.0 ova/10 ml of urine and averaged 8.1. Age stratified prevalence of infection peaked at 15.7% in the 10-14-year-old age group and decreased to 3.5-5.5% in all groups more than 25 years of age. Age-stratified intensity of infection peaked at approximately 10.0 ova/10 ml of urine in the 5-14-year-old age groups and was about half that in all groups more than 25 years of age. Males had higher infection rates and ova counts than females in all age groups. Schistosoma mansoni was rare in Upper Egypt, being consequential in only Fayoum, which had a prevalence of 4.3% and an average intensity of infection of 44.0 ova/g of stool. Risk factors for S. haematobium infection were male gender, an age <21 years old, living in smaller communities, exposures to canal water; a history of, or treatment for, schistosomiasis, a history of burning micturition or blood in the urine, and reagent strip-detected hematuria or proteinuria. The more severe grades (II and III) of ultrasonography-detected periportal fibrosis (PPF) were rare (15 of 906) in these schistosomiasis haematobia-endemic governorates. Risk factors for morbidity (ultrasonography-detected urinary bladder wall lesions and/or obstructive uropathy) were similar to those for infection, with the exception that risk progressively increased with age. Subjects with active S. haematobium infections were 3 times as likely as those without active S. haematobium infections to have urinary tract morbidity. The prevalence of S. mansoni in 5 governorates in Lower Egypt, where it is endemic, ranged from 17.5% to 42.9% and averaged 36.4%. The GMEC ranged from 62.6 to 93.3 eggs/g of stool and averaged 81.3. Age-stratified prevalence of infection peaked at 48.3% in the 15-19-year-old age group, but averaged 35-45% in all groups more than 10 years of age. The intensity of infection was highest in the 10-14-year-old age group, and showed a range of 70-85 eggs/g of stool in those > or =5 years of age. Males had higher infection rates and ova counts than females in all age groups. Schistosoma haematobium was rare in these governorates; Ismailia (1.8%) had the highest infection rate. Risk factors for S. mansoni were male gender, an age >10 years old, living in smaller communities, exposures to canal water, a history of, or treatment for, schistosomiasis or blood in the stool, detection of splenomegaly by either physical examination or ultrasonography, and ultrasonography-detected PPF. The more severe grades (II and III) accounted for 463 (13.3%) of the 3,494 having ultrasonography-detected PPF. Risk factors for morbidity (ultrasonography-detected PPF) were similar to those for infection except that inhabitants of smaller communities were not at increased risk. Active S. mansoni infection increased the odds ratio (OR) of having PPF by 1.37. In comparison with others with normal-size livers, subjects having hepatic enlargement in either the midclavicular line or the midsternal line detected by physical examination or ultrasonography had a reduced risk (ORs = 0.64-0.72) of PPF. The prevalences of lesions detected by ultrasonography were 23.7% for enlargement of right lobe of the liver, 11.3% for enlargement of left hepatic lobe, 20.6% for splenomegaly, and 50.3% for PPF. Schistosoma mansoni has almost totally replaced S. haematobium in Lower E

PMID:
10813505
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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