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Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Apr;73(3):163-70.

Correlation between urine and blood concentrations, and dietary intake of cadmium and lead among women in the general population of Japan.

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  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women's University, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine whether lead (Pb) in urine and cadmium (Cd) in blood, especially the former, can be used as markers of environmental exposure of general populations to these metals.

METHODS:

Between 1991 and 1998, spot urine and peripheral blood samples, together with 24 h duplicates of food intake were collected from 607 non-smoking adult women in 30 survey sites (SS) in seven administrative regions all over Japan. Urine, blood and food duplicate samples were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry, for Cd and Pb in urine (Cd-U and Pb-U), in blood (Cd-B and Pb-B) and in food duplicates (Cd-F and Pb-F). Correlation between the measurements was examined by regression analysis.

RESULTS:

The Cd-B correlated closely with Cd-U, and both Cd-B and Cd-U with Cd-F, on an individual basis (n = 607), on an SS basis (n = 30) and on a regional basis (n = 7). The Pb-U however did not correlate with Pb-B on a regional basis although they correlated with each other when analyzed on an individual as well as SS basis. Moreover, the correlation coefficients between Pb-U and Pb-B were much smaller than those between Cd-U and Cd-B. Neither Pb-U nor Pb-B showed significant correlation with Pb-F on any levels of statistical analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both Cd-B and Cd-U can be employed as biomarkers of environmental Cd exposure. The reliability of Pb-U for use in place of Pb-B appeared to be small.

PMID:
10787131
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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