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J Appl Psychol. 2000 Apr;85(2):305-13.

Does computerizing paper-and-pencil job attitude scales make a difference? New IRT analyses offer insight.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.


The measurement equivalence of 2 scales of the Job Descriptive Index (JDI; P. C. Smith, L. M. Kendall, & C. L. Hulin, 1969), the Supervisor Satisfaction scale and the Coworker Satisfaction scale, was examined across computerized and paper-and-pencil administrations. In this study, employees in 2 organizations (N = 1,777) were administered paper-and-pencil versions of the scales, and employees in a third organization (N = 509) were administered a computerized version. A newly developed item response theory (IRT) technique for examining differential test functioning (N. S. Raju, W. J. van der Linden, & P. F. Fleer, 1995) was used to examine measurement equivalence across media. Results support the measurement equivalence of the JDI Supervisor and Coworker scales across administration media. The implications of these findings for both practitioners and organizational researchers are discussed.

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