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J Biol Chem. 2000 Jun 30;275(26):20020-6.

Regulatory proteins of R-Ras, TC21/R-Ras2, and M-Ras/R-Ras3.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 182-8655, Japan.


We studied the regulation of three closely related members of Ras family G proteins, R-Ras, TC21 (also known as R-Ras2), and M-Ras (R-Ras3). Guanine nucleotide exchange of R-Ras and TC21 was promoted by RasGRF, C3G, CalDAG-GEFI, CalDAG-GEFII (RasGRP), and CalDAG-GEFIII both in 293T cells and in vitro. By contrast, guanine nucleotide exchange of M-Ras was promoted by the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the classical Ras (Ha-, K-, and N-), including mSos, RasGRF, CalDAG-GEFII, and CalDAG-GEFIII. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for Ras, Gap1(m), p120 GAP, and NF-1 stimulated all of the R-Ras, TC21, and M-Ras proteins, whereas R-Ras GAP stimulated R-Ras and TC21 but not M-Ras. We did not find any remarkable difference in the subcellular localization of R-Ras, TC21, or M-Ras when these were expressed with a green fluorescent protein tag in 293T cells and MDCK cells. In conclusion, TC21 and R-Ras were regulated by the same GEFs and GAPs, whereas M-Ras was regulated as the classical Ras.

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