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Cardiovasc Res. 2000 May;46(2):307-15.

Evolution of matrix metalloprotease and tissue inhibitor expression during heart failure progression in the infarcted rat.

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  • 1Department of Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research, Division of Warner-Lambert Company, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. tom.peterson@wl.com



Characterize the timecourse of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -11, -12, -13, and -14) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4) upregulation during left ventricular (LV) remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) in rats.


The descending left coronary artery of male rats (Rattus norvegicus) was ligated to produce a MI. LV function and dilation were assessed from 1 day to 16 weeks post-MI. Protein and mRNA extraction was done on LV samples containing scar and myocardium together. Gelatinase activity was measured by zymography. Westerns were run on the MMPs known to cleave fibrillar collagen in the rat (MMP-8, -13, and -14) as well as TIMP-1, -2, and -4.


Average infarct size was 38.6+/-1.1%, and produced LV dysfunction and progressive LV dilation. Thoracic ascites, a marker of congestive heart failure (HF), was not present until 12 weeks post-MI. Upregulation of MMP-2, -8, -9, -13, and -14 and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was detected at different timepoints during HF progression. Increased MMP protein levels occurred sometimes without a corresponding elevation in mRNA levels, and increased TIMP mRNA levels without increased protein levels. MMP-13 active form was elevated during the first 2 weeks post-MI while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein levels were not significantly elevated until 2 weeks post-MI. MMP-8 and MMP-14 protein levels increased later during heart failure progression.


MMP/TIMP upregulation evolves over time following infarction in the rat LV. Some MMPs were significantly elevated during the first week post-MI (MMP-13, -2, and -9) and another was not until 16 weeks post-MI (MMP-14). The dissociation between LV MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels shows that post-translation processing occurs in the rat heart.

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