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Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 May 15;28(10):E47.

Normalization strategies for cDNA microarrays.

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  • 1Institute for Theoretical Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.


Multiple Arabidopsis thaliana clones from an experimental series of cDNA microarrays are evaluated in order to identify essential sources of noise in the spotting and hybridization process. Theoretical and experimental strategies for an improved quantitative evaluation of cDNA microarrays are proposed and tested on a series of differently diluted control clones. Several sources of noise are identified from the data. Systematic and stochastic fluctuations in the spotting process are reduced by control spots and statistical techniques. The reliability of slide to slide comparison is critically assessed within the statistical framework of pattern matching and classification.

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