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Chest. 2000 Apr;117(4):935-43.

Ethnic differences: word descriptors used by African-American and white asthma patients during induced bronchoconstriction.

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  • 1University of California San Francisco, School of Nursing and Department of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.



To determine if African-American and white patients with asthma (1) differ in the words they use to describe their breathlessness, and (2) differ in their perception of breathlessness.


Descriptive cross-sectional design.


The study setting was located in Northern California, an ethnically and economically diverse area. A total of 32 subjects, 16 per group, completed the study.


All had a provocation concentration of methacholine chloride causing a 30% fall in FEV(1) (PC(30)) of </= 8 mg/mL. Serial pulmonary function testing was performed. Breathlessness was measured using the Borg scale and the visual analog scale. Word descriptors were measured by an open-ended word descriptor questionnaire.


Significant ethnic differences in the words used to describe the sensation of breathlessness were present at PC(30). African Americans used upper airway word descriptors: tight throat (p < 0. 0004), scared-agitated (p < 0.006), voice tight (p < 0.04), itchy throat (p < 0.03), and tough breath (p < 0.04). Whites used lower airway or chest-wall symptom descriptors: deep breath (p < 0.03), light-headed (p < 0.03), out of air (p < 0.01), aware of breathing (p < 0.03), and hurts to breathe (p < 0.06). In addition, African Americans required a significantly smaller, 44.3% (mean), dose of methacholine to achieve PC(30) (p < 0.02).


This study provides valuable new information about ethnicity and the words used to describe breathlessness during airflow obstruction. Asthmatic African Americans used primarily upper airway word descriptors; whites used lower airway or chest-wall word descriptors. Effective symptom monitoring requires asking the correct question and awareness that ethnic differences in the words used to describe breathlessness may exist.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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