Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Med Chem. 2000 Apr 6;43(7):1271-81.

Conformational selection of inhibitors and substrates by proteolytic enzymes: implications for drug design and polypeptide processing.

Author information

  • 1Centre for Drug Design and Development, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. d.fairlie@mailbox.uq.edu.au

Abstract

Inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes (proteases) are emerging as prospective treatments for diseases such as AIDS and viral infections, cancers, inflammatory disorders, and Alzheimer's disease. Generic approaches to the design of protease inhibitors are limited by the unpredictability of interactions between, and structural changes to, inhibitor and protease during binding. A computer analysis of superimposed crystal structures for 266 small molecule inhibitors bound to 48 proteases (16 aspartic, 17 serine, 8 cysteine, and 7 metallo) provides the first conclusive proof that inhibitors, including substrate analogues, commonly bind in an extended beta-strand conformation at the active sites of all these proteases. Representative superimposed structures are shown for (a) multiple inhibitors bound to a protease of each class, (b) single inhibitors each bound to multiple proteases, and (c) conformationally constrained inhibitors bound to proteases. Thus inhibitor/substrate conformation, rather than sequence/composition alone, influences protease recognition, and this has profound implications for inhibitor design. This conclusion is supported by NMR, CD, and binding studies for HIV-1 protease inhibitors/substrates which, when preorganized in an extended conformation, have significantly higher protease affinity. Recognition is dependent upon conformational equilibria since helical and turn peptide conformations are not processed by proteases. Conformational selection explains the resistance of folded/structured regions of proteins to proteolytic degradation, the susceptibility of denatured proteins to processing, and the higher affinity of conformationally constrained 'extended' inhibitors/substrates for proteases. Other approaches to extended inhibitor conformations should similarly lead to high-affinity binding to a protease.

PMID:
10753465
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

Chemical Information

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Chemical Society
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk