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Carcinogenesis. 2000 Apr;21(4):677-82.

Sex-dependent regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferation in mice by trichloroethylene via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha).

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  • 1Department of Hygiene, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan.


The mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced liver peroxisome proliferation and the sex difference in response was investigated using wild-type Sv/129 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-null mice. Trichloroethylene treatment (0.75 g/kg for 2 weeks by gavage) resulted in liver peroxisome proliferation in wild-type mice, but not in PPARalpha-null mice, suggesting that trichloroethylene-induced peroxisome proliferation is primarily mediated by PPARalpha. No remarkable sex difference was observed in induction of peroxisome proliferation, as measured morphologically, but a markedly higher induction of several enzymes and PPARalpha protein and mRNA was found in males. On the other hand, trichloroethylene induced liver cytochrome P450 2E1, the principal enzyme responsible for metabolizing trichloroethylene to chloral hydrate, only in males, which resulted in similar expression levels in both sexes after the treatment. Trichloroethylene influenced neither the level of catalase, an enzyme involved in the reduction of oxidative stress, nor aldehyde dehydrogenase, the main enzyme catalyzing the conversion to trichloroacetic acid. These results suggest that trichloroethylene treatment causes a male-specific PPARalpha-dependent increase in cellular oxidative stress.

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