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J Subst Abuse Treat. 2000 Apr;18(3):255-61.

Community reinforcement approach for combined opioid and cocaine dependence. Patterns of engagement in alternate activities.

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  • 1CMHC/SAC, Room S-205, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. richard.schottenfeld@yale.edu


We compared outcomes for agonist-maintained patients with combined opioid and cocaine dependence who were treated in an earlier clinical trial with group drug counseling (DC; n = 57) or in a current trial with the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA; n = 60). The association between engagement in nondrug-related activities and abstinence was also evaluated. There were no significant differences between the treatments in retention or drug use. The total number of hours and average hours per week engaged in nondrug-related activities was significantly higher for CRA-treated patients who achieved abstinence from opioids, cocaine, or both combined than for those who never achieved abstinence. Although CRA was not more effective overall than DC, the finding that engagement in reinforcing community activities unrelated to drug use (e.g., planned pleasurable events or parenting activities) was associated with abstinence suggests that the planning and reinforcement of specific nondrug-related social, vocational, and recreational activities is a crucial component of CRA.

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