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Am J Bot. 2000 Mar;87(3):302-13.

Wound-induced traumatic resin duct development in stems of Norway spruce (Pinaceae): anatomy and cytochemical traits.

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  • 1Norwegian Forest Research Institute, Høgskoleveien 12, N-1432 Ås, Norway;


Wounding of Norway spruce by inoculation with sterile agar, or agar containing the pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis polonica, induced traumatic resin duct formation in the stem. Visible anatomical responses occurred in the cambium 6-9 d post-inoculation. Near the inoculation site cellular proliferation, polyphenolic accumulation, and lignification were induced as a wound reaction to seal the damaged area. Five centimetres from the inoculation site cells in the cambial zone swelled and divided to form clusters. By 18 d post-inoculation, these cells began to differentiate into resin duct epithelial cells surrounding incipient schizogenous lumens. Mature axial traumatic ducts appeared by 36 d as a row of ducts in the xylem centripetal to the cambium. The ducts formed an interconnected network continuous with radial resin ducts. Parenchyma cells surrounding the ducts accumulated polyphenols that disappeared as the cells differentiated into tracheids. These polyphenols appeared to contain fewer sugar residues compared to those accumulating in the secondary phloem, as indicated by the periodic acid-Schiff's staining. The epithelial cells did not accumulate polyphenols but contained immunologically detectable phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC, indicating synthesis of phenolics as a possible resin component. These findings may represent a defense mechanism in Norway spruce against the pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis polonica.

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