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J Biol Chem. 1979 May 10;254(9):3211-20.

Biological properties of antibodies against rat adipocyte intrinsic membrane proteins. Dependence on multivalency for insulin-like activity.

Abstract

Antisera from rabbits injected with rat adipocyte plasma membranes or intrinsic proteins from such membranes, obtained by a dimethylmaleic anhydride extraction step, mimicked the action of insulin on both glucose transport and lipolysis in intact adipocytes. Biological activity in both types of antisera was mediated by immunoglobulin binding to one or more intrinsic proteins of the adipocyte plasma membrane since fat cells were unresponsive to all antisera absorbed with dimethylmaleic anhydride-extracted membranes. Acid treatment of immunoprecipitates released antibodies which activated glucose uptake and reacted with solubilized adipocyte membranes on immunodiffusion plates. The biologically active immunoglobulin preparations failed to form immunoprecipitin lines when tested against membranes from brain, liver, lung, muscle, kidney, and spleen. Insulin-sensitive glucose uptake in rat soleus muscle did not respond to the antisera. The antibodies activated hexose uptake into fat cells and reacted with solubilized adipocyte membranes on immunodiffusion plates when rat or mouse adipocytes were studied, but not when monkey fat cells were used. The anti-membrane antibody preparations readily activated hexose uptake in trypsinized fat cells which had lost the capacity to bind or respond to insulin. These data are consistent with the concept previously proposed (Pillion, D.J., and Czech, M.P. (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 3761-3764) that the anti-membrane immunoglobulins do not interact with the insulin binding site of the insulin receptor. Monovalent Fab fragments of the biologically active antisera, prepared by papain digestion of the native anti-membrane immunoglobulins, were ineffective in enhancing glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, biological activity of the anti-membrane Fab fragments was restored by the addition of goat anti-rabbit Fab antisera to cells treated with the Fab fraction. Anti-rabbit Fab antisera alone or in combination with Fab fragments prepared from control rabbit sera exhibited no biological activity. These results demonstrate that the ability of anti-membrane antisera to mimic the biological activity of insulin on isolated fat cells is critically dependent on immunoglobulin binding to one or more intrinsic plasma membrane proteins and the multivalent nature of immunoglobulin structure.

PMID:
107169
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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