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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 14;97(6):2767-72.

Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement.

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  • 1Departments of Bioengineering, Biochemistry/Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6089, USA.


We present quantitative optical images of human breast in vivo. The images were obtained by using near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) after the administration of indocyanine green (ICG) for contrast enhancement. The optical examination was performed concurrently with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam on patients scheduled for excisional biopsy or surgery so that accurate image coregistration and histopathological information of the suspicious lesions was available. The ICG-enhanced optical images coregistered accurately with Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images validating the ability of DOT to image breast tissue. In contrast to simple transillumination, we found that DOT provides for localization and quantification of exogenous tissue chromophore concentrations. Additionally our use of ICG, an albumin bound absorbing dye in plasma, demonstrates the potential to differentiate disease based on the quantified enhancement of suspicious lesions.

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