Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Cell Biol. 2000 Feb 21;148(4):691-702.

Interaction among GSK-3, GBP, axin, and APC in Xenopus axis specification.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Center for Developmental Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7350, USA.

Abstract

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active kinase that negatively regulates its substrates, one of which is beta-catenin, a downstream effector of the Wnt signaling pathway that is required for dorsal-ventral axis specification in the Xenopus embryo. GSK-3 activity is regulated through the opposing activities of multiple proteins. Axin, GSK-3, and beta-catenin form a complex that promotes the GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of beta-catenin. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) joins the complex and downregulates beta-catenin in mammalian cells, but its role in Xenopus is less clear. In contrast, GBP, which is required for axis formation in Xenopus, binds and inhibits GSK-3. We show here that GSK-3 binding protein (GBP) inhibits GSK-3, in part, by preventing Axin from binding GSK-3. Similarly, we present evidence that a dominant-negative GSK-3 mutant, which causes the same effects as GBP, keeps endogenous GSK-3 from binding to Axin. We show that GBP also functions by preventing the GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation of a protein substrate without eliminating its catalytic activity. Finally, we show that the previously demonstrated axis-inducing property of overexpressed APC is attributable to its ability to stabilize cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels, demonstrating that APC is impinging upon the canonical Wnt pathway in this model system. These results contribute to our growing understanding of how GSK-3 regulation in the early embryo leads to regional differences in beta-catenin levels and establishment of the dorsal axis.

PMID:
10684251
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2169372
Free PMC Article

Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances, Grant Support

Publication Types

MeSH Terms

Substances

Grant Support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk