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Equine Vet J Suppl. 1999 Jul;(30):148-52.

Cardiac output measurements using sonomicrometer crystals on the left ventricle at rest and exercise.

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  • 1Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.


Eight horses were fitted surgically with 8 ultrasonic sonomicrometer crystals each attached to their left ventricular pericardia and a left atrial catheter. Three horses returned to treadmill performance with a maximum rate of oxygen consumption similar to their presurgical values. These horses were evaluated to determine how well sonomicrometer estimates of cardiac output agreed with those obtained by a steady-state method, the Fick principle. Variance between the 2 was similar to the coefficient of variation (approximately 12.5%) of the Fick estimates. We conclude that left ventricular sonomicrometer measurements in horses appear to give a reasonable estimate of ventricular dimensions and can, therefore, be used potentially to evaluate such variables as diastolic flow.

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