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Adolescence. 1999 Fall;34(135):493-501.

Racial socialization and racial identity: can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents?

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  • 1Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.


Although there is a rich body of research on resiliency, much of the literature fails to include minority youths or does not take into consideration their distinctive racial and environmental circumstances. Additionally, limited attention has been given to protective factors that are unique to nonmajority populations. This article posits that racial socialization and racial identity protect urban African American adolescents against some of the harmful effects of a discriminatory environment. These factors are hypothesized to influence academic achievement-an indicator of resiliency that has been used in many studies. A theoretical framework is provided that combines character development in a hostile environment, bicultural identity, and urban stress models. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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