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J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Feb;68(2):211-3.

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: a series of witnessed deaths.

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  • 1Epilepsy Research Group and Neuroepidemiology Unit, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.



Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents a significant category of mortality in the population with chronic epilepsy. A consistent feature is that most of these deaths are unwitnessed. The aim was to identify witnessed deaths, examine the circumstances, and relate these findings to the proposed mechanisms for SUDEP.


During the course of case ascertainment for a control study on SUDEP, witnessed deaths were identified and the circumstances examined in detail. Cases were notified by coroners, neurologists, and bereaved families. The findings were related to the proposed mechanisms for SUDEP which include central and obstructive apnoea and cardiac arrhythmia.


One hundred and thirty five SUDEP cases have been identified to date, of which 15 were witnessed deaths. Twelve deaths were associated with convulsive seizures, one collapse occurred 5 minutes after a generalised seizure, another collapse occurred after an aura and one patient died while in a probable post ictal state. Witnesses reported that 12 of the 15 cases experienced respiratory difficulty.


Most sudden epilepsy deaths are unwitnessed. Where witnessed most occur in association with a seizure and respiratory compromise is a prominent feature. Positioning or stimulation of respiration may be important in the prevention of these deaths.

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