Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Toxicol Lett. 1999 Dec 20;111(1-2):5-15.

Musk xylene and musk ketone amino metabolites in the aquatic environment.

Author information

  • 1Department of Residue and Contamination Analysis, Official Food and Veterinary Institute (LVUA) Schleswig-Holstein, Neumünster, Germany.


The monoamino metabolites of the nitro musk fragrances musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) were analysed simultaneously with their parent compounds by GC/ECD, GC/PND and GC/EI/MS in the various compartments of the aquatic environment. In this review the data of the metabolites 4-NH2-MX, 2-NH2-MX, and 2-NH2-MK in five river water and seven sewage samples, six sediment samples and in a total of 33 biota samples are summarized and discussed. In the effluents of two municipal sewage plants low nitro musk concentrations and comparatively high levels of the amino metabolites (maximum concentrations: 34 ng 4-NH2-MX/L, 250 ng 2-NH2-MK/L) were analysed indicating that besides adsorption to the sludge the metabolization pathway plays an important role in the sewage plant. In water samples from the river Elbe the transformation products were the dominant compounds as well. In general, in water samples the concentrations of 2-NH2-MK exceeded those of the main MX metabolite 4-NH2-MX significantly. In biota samples 4-NH2-MX seems to be the main metabolite, very often its contents were higher than those of the parent compound. Maximum concentrations of 4-NH2-MX were found in tenches from a sewage pond (3600 microg/kg lipid), a species dependent bioaccumulation was discussed. The bioconcentration of 2-NH2-MK in biota samples is relatively low. There are only few toxicological studies on the mixed amino nitroaromatics, whose data indicate the relevance of the monoamino metabolites in environmental analysis and toxicology and the urgent need of further investigations.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk